In using these tuning exercises with performers in a rehearsal situation, conductors might first wish to indicate each chord, holding some longer than others until they settle into tune. Eventually, the exercises should move along at a more even and flowing pace. Especially when first beginning to work with these exercises, singers may wish to sing “ah” as a basic vowel sound, with “ee” for +1 annotations and “oh” for -1 annotations. This helps to raise and lower the pitches of the notes by the kinds of small increments necessary. Eventually, this extra help shouldn’t be needed to find the pitches (which is obviously good because “real” texted music has its own vowel requirements). Conductors might also wish to try transposing up or down from the written pitch, although opening unisons in some of the exercises will preclude anything but a short distance in either direction.